Ever since Berlioz had used it in the “Witches Sabbath” movement of his Symphonie fantastique, it had become a symbol of death and demonic forces in music. Sure enough, Rachmaninoff explains: “Variations 8, 9, 10—progress of the evil spirit.”, “Variation 11 is the transition to the realm of love,” he continues. What that something else might be, however, is best left to the listener to decide. The premiere was given in Baltimore by the Philadelphia Orchestra with Rachmaninoff as soloist and Leopold Stokowski conducting (Stokowski would later become music director of the Houston Symphony in 1955). A Baroque Christmas: Q&A with Guest Vocalist Morris Robinson. Rachmaninoff was born on Rachmaninoff agreed to the extra measures, although he said A major would not work and asked that the 18th Variation be played in D major, to provide greater tension. Fokine wanted to make a minor change to the score, involving the reuse of 12 earlier measures as a more theatrically effective introduction to the 18th Variation, which he wanted to play in the key of A major, rather than DTemplate:Music major. Check back soon for our next post, which details Rachmaninoff’s secret program for this concert hall staple. This dissertation on Rachmaninoff's Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini, Op.43 is divided into four parts: 1) historical background and the state of the sources, 2) analysis, 3) semantic issues related to analysis (discourse), and 4) performance and analysis. 2; Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini", "Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Op. Piano Accompaniment included. He played the piano version for Fokine, but both died before the idea got any further. Geoffrey Norris reviews Rachmaninov: Symphony No 3 and Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini … Don’t miss Rachmaninoff’s Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini November 17, 18 & 19, 2017 at Jones Hall. The slow, graceful minuet features the soloist above a delicate pizzicato string accompaniment. The whole composition takes about 22–24 minutes to perform. “Variation 12—the minuet—is the first appearance of the woman…” Variation 11 begins softly with tremolo strings accompanying quasi-improvised and highly chromatic passages in the piano. For tickets and more information, visit houstonsymphony.org. A grueling performance schedule, periodic health problems and homesickness made composing increasingly difficult, and the less than enthusiastic reception of his Fourth Piano Concerto, his first composition in exile, only fed his doubts and self-criticism. The video game Gran Turismo 6 uses it as the intro theme. • Rachmaninoff's Works for Piano and Orchestra An analysis of Rachmaninoff's works for piano and orchestra, including the Piano Concertos and the Paganini Rhapsody Rachmaninoff likely got the idea of having a variation before the theme from the finale of Beethoven's Eroica symphony. Breaking Down Rachmaninoff’s “Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini”. Get tickets and more info at houstonsymphony.org. Rachmaninoff, Sergei. ) 43 (Remastered 1999)", "Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini (Introduction and 24 Variations), for piano & orchestra in A minor, Op. The climactic twenty-second variation in Rachmaninoff s Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Op. The English premiere on 7 March 1935 at Manchester Free Trade Hall also featured Rachmaninoff with The Hallé under Nikolai Malko. The piece is a set of 24 variations on the twenty-fourth and last of Niccolò Paganini's Caprices for solo violin, which has inspired works by several composers. The Rhapsody begins with a short introduction that unexpectedly leads not to the theme, but to the first variation: a pared-down outline of Paganini’s melody: This unconventional beginning was likely inspired by the finale of Beethoven’s Symphony No. Rachmaninov: Symphony No 3; Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, CD review. "[4], The 24th variation is more playful in tone than most of the other variations, ending with a glissando sweep of the keyboard, before quoting the original theme in the last bar. These correspond to the three movements of a concerto: up to variation 10 corresponds to the first movement, variations 11 to 18 are the equivalent of a slow movement, and the remaining variations make a finale. This chord (enharmonic to F♯ø7) is followed by an A♭7 (sub6) chord (V7sub6) which leads to the tonic D♭-major chord at rehearsal number 51. [9] His performance was a spectacular success, and prior to every subsequent performance of the Rhapsody, he drank crème de menthe. [Heejung Kang] This document explores the use of the theme from Paganini's 24 th Caprice and the Dies Irae in Rachmaninoff's Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Op. All variations are in A minor except where noted. The perfect companion for study and revision of the 2020–2022 Haydn and Rachmaninoff set works. 43, (Russian: Рапсодия на тему Паганини, Rapsodiya na temu Paganini) is a concertante work written by Sergei Rachmaninoff.It is written for solo piano and symphony orchestra, closely resembling a piano concerto.The work was written at Villa Senar, according to the score, from July 3 to August 18, 1934. Having lost nearly everything in the revolution, he was determined to restore his family to its former standard of living as quickly as possible, which meant giving up composing in favor of pursuing a career as a touring piano virtuoso. Support our Home for the Holidays campaign by making your gift today! –Calvin Dotsey. Written by an experienced teacher, this guide fully supports Section A of the Musical Perception exam. I'm trying to analyze that first chord in measure 660. My analysis focuses on three variation sets all based on the same theme (Paganini's Twenty-Four Caprices, Op. [2], After a brief introduction, the first variation is played before the theme. It starts with a quick and striking theme, memorable for its drama and elemental sound. He is especially known for his piano concerti and the piece for piano and orchestra titled Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini (1934). [4] Variations II to VI recombine elements of the theme. 3, eroica (his “heroic” symphony), a theme and variations that begins in … In response, Rachmaninoff suggested the Rhapsody, and provided the outline of a scenario for the ballet. Sergei Rachmaninov’s Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini is a concertante work (a large-scale work which uses both the symphonic and concerto forms throughout).It was composed in 1934, and is scored for solo piano and a full Romantic symphonic orchestra.

The Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini is also one of the romantic period's greatest pieces. With this set of pieces, Brahms placed himself squarely in the tradition of nineteenth century piano étude composition. 43, (Russian: Рапсодия на тему Паганини, Rapsodiya na temu Paganini) is a concertante work written by Sergei Rachmaninoff for piano and orchestra, closely resembling a piano concerto, all in a single movement. One of Rachmaninoff’s beloved works is Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini—a collection of 24 variations on an original theme by Paganini—which the NJSO will perform from Nov 30–Dec 3. Ever self-critical, Rachmaninoff modestly ended his note with “You’re not laughing at me? Ingeniously, Rachmaninoff discovered that the Dies Irae was related to Paganini’s theme in such a way that the one could be a variation of the other. - NYTimes.com", "Rachmaninoff Plays Rachmaninoff – The 4 Piano Concertos, Etc", "Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini (Introduction and 24 Variations), for piano & orchestra in A minor, Op. Your subscription means more than ever. He also wondered why Niccolò Paganini had been turned into a guitar player in Fokine's scenario, but did not object. Rachmaninoff: Variation XVIII (Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini) 11:49 on Wednesday, May 14, 2008 Merghe (2 points) Posted by Merghe. Sergey Rachmaninoff, composer who was the last great figure of the tradition of Russian Romanticism and a leading piano virtuoso of his time. There, during the summer of 1934, the 61 year-old composer was once again struck with inspiration, and “working literally from morn to night” completed a masterpiece that would at last equal the success of his earlier works. 43 : analysis and discourse. This includes:[25]. The public response was so overwhelming that Rachmaninoff was taken aback, saying “It somehow looks suspicious that the Rhapsody has had such an immediate success with everybody.” He had nothing to fear however; the Rhapsody has been a cornerstone of the repertoire ever since. In his Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Rachmaninoff composed a concertante work for solo piano and orchestra consisting of 24 variations on the theme. The Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini is also one of the romantic period's greatest pieces.

Helpful links in machine-readable formats. 3, at #19 there can be a dialogue with Paganini, Variation 11 begins softly with tremolo strings, a grotesque parody of the triumphant Dies Irae, Playliszt: 10 Great Pieces by Music’s Original Rock Star. In the following variations, the tension increases as the soloist executes ever more astonishing feats of virtuosity. Stephen Hough performs Rachmaninov's Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini and Lutosławski's Variations on a Theme by Paganini on the opening night … Your email address will not be published. “Variation 19 is the triumph of Paganini’s art, his diabolic pizzicato.” Indeed, Rachmaninoff marked the pianist’s pointillistic passagework “quasi pizzicato,” suggesting that he had this idea in mind when composing. The last piece on the program is Rachmaninoff’s beloved Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini. The last of Paganini's 24 Caprices for violin has been the subject of many sets of variations, including the composer's own set of 12, Brahms' brilliant Paganini Variations for piano, those by twentieth century composers Lutoslawski, Blacher, Lloyd-Webber, and others. Rachmaninoff agreed to t… [7] Due to the speed and the large leaps on the piano, the 24th and last variation of the rhapsody presents considerable technical difficulty for the pianist. The public response was so overwhelming that Rachmaninoff was taken aback, saying It somehow looks suspicious that the Rhaps… The pauses and rhetorical flourishes for the piano in variation VI herald a change of tempo and tone. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Rachmaninoff, Stokowski, and the Philadelphia Orchestra made the first recording, on 24 December 1934, at RCA Victor's Trinity Church Studio in Camden, New Jersey. 24): Brahms's Variations on a Theme by Paganini, Op. Rachmaninoff's Rhapsody on a theme by Paganini, op. The piece is one of several by Rachmaninoff to quote the Dies Irae plainchant melody. Like Brahms and Liszt before him, Rachmaninoff had been inspired by a simple tune by the early nineteenth-century violin virtuoso, Niccolò Paganini. After Rachmaninoff fled Russia in 1917, he composed only six original pieces during the remaining twenty-five years of his life. 43 – Franck: Symphonic Variations; Rachmaninov / Fleisher, Szell", "Classical Net Review – Seraphim Reissues", "Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini (Introduction and 24 Variations), for piano & orchestra in A minor, Op. [10], In 1939, Michel Fokine wrote to Rachmaninoff from Auckland, New Zealand, where he was touring, seeking the composer's approval to use Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini for his ballet Paganini, which he had almost finished choreographing. We then hear the theme presented in the violins as the piano takes up the simplified notes of the first variation. The piece is scored for piano and orchestra:[1] piccolo, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, English horn, 2 clarinets in B♭, 2 bassoons, 4 horns in F, 2 trumpets in C, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, triangle, snare drum, cymbals, bass drum, glockenspiel, harp and strings. Rachmaninoff, Sergei, 1873-1943. Tempo matched to famous performer's recording. Required fields are marked *. 43, (Russian: Рапсодия на тему Паганини, Rapsodiya na temu Paganini) is a concertante work written by Sergei Rachmaninoff.It is written for solo piano and symphony orchestra, closely resembling a piano concerto.The work was written at his Villa, the Villa Senar, in Switzerland, according to the score, from July 3 to August 18, 1934. Rachmaninoff himself, a noted interpreter of his own works, played the piano part at the piece's premiere on 7 November 1934, at the Lyric Opera House in Baltimore, Maryland, with the Philadelphia Orchestra conducted by Leopold Stokowski. Fokine wanted to make a minor change to the score, involving the reuse of 12 earlier measures as a more theatrically effective introduction to the 18th Variation, which he wanted to play in the key of A major, rather than D♭ major. For instance, he prefaced his early orchestral work, The Rock, with a quote from a poem by Lermontov. 43 (1934), is unlike any variation that comes before it in the work: here, for the first time, the binary plan of Paganini's theme is abandoned, as though the accumulated force of musical ideas generated in … At last, “defeated,” Paganini “appears for the last time at the 23rd variation—the first 12 bars—after which, to the end, is the triumph of his conquerors.” This 23rd variation begins with the return of the original theme in the piano, which, after 12 bars, is abruptly cut off by the orchestra, which apes the theme with a sudden, jarring key change. I'm working on an analysis of Variation XVIII of Rachmaninoff's Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini. The rhapsody begins with a short introduction that unexpectedly leads not to the theme, but to the first variation: a pared down outline of paganini’s melody: this unconventional beginning was likely inspired by the finale of beethoven’s symphony no. Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Op. Interestingly, Rachmaninoff says, “And it also seems to me that at the conclusion of the play the several personages [representing] the evil spirit should be caricatures, absolute caricatures, of Paganini himself.” The rhapsody ends with a grotesque parody of the triumphant Dies Irae for full orchestra. Abstract. In other words, the A minor Paganini theme is literally played "upside down" in D♭ major, with a few other changes. The premiere was given in Baltimore by the Philadelphia Orchestra with Rachmaninoff as soloist and Leopold Stokowski conducting (Stokowski would later become music director of the Houston Symphony in 1955). 43 – Rachmaninov: Piano Concerto No.2/Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini", "Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini (Introduction and 24 Variations), for piano & orchestra in A minor, Op. Rachmaninoff’s Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Op. Perhaps Paganini’s most celebrated original works were his 24 caprices for solo violin, the last of which was a theme and variations. [14], The 18th variation, by far the most popular, has been used in various movie and TV show soundtracks to different degrees. These variations contain a wide variety of moods and characters, from the heroism of the 14th variation to the tenderness of the 18th, the most famous part of the entire work. 1, No. Upon the suggestion of his friend Benno Moiseiwitsch, Rachmaninoff broke his usual rule against drinking alcohol and had a glass of crème de menthe to steady his nerves, which he reputedly kept beneath the piano. Perfect for both students and professionals preparing for concerts or competitions. If you know any piece by 19 th – and 20 th -century Russian composer Sergei Rachmaninoff, chances are it’s his hit concerto-like work for piano and orchestra, Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini. The piece is a set of variations on Niccolò Paganini ’s Caprice No. While Paganini might have met his downfall, the piano soloist gets the last laugh, concluding the work with a wink and a smile. Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Op. Thus, it is entirely possible that the Paganini story could be merely a metaphor for something else. Un poco più vivo (Alla breve), Variation 24: A tempo un poco meno mosso (A minor →, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 06:48. He composed his Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini in July and August 1934 and gave the first performance in Baltimore on November 7 that year with the Philadelphia Orchestra under the direction of Leopold Stokowski. [3] Paganini's theme is stated on strings with the piano picking out salient notes, after the first variation. [6], The slow 18th variation is by far the best known, and it is often included on classical music compilations without the rest of the work. The pop song "If I Had You" by The Korgis uses the melody fragment from the 18th variation. Even during his life, a legend that he had sold his soul to the devil in exchange for his preternatural abilities became so widespread that the Catholic Church refused him burial service upon his death. A few years later, the celebrated choreographer Michel Fokine approached Rachmaninoff hoping that the two could collaborate. Explore the 2020–21 season and purchase your subscription today! Although Rachmaninoff's work is performed in one stretch without breaks, it can be divided into three sections, as shown above. 43 – Rachmaninoff: Concerto No. Pianist Anna Fedorova and AVROTROS Klassiek are a golden duo: recordings of her previous concerts are one of the most popular ones on our channel. The simple tune that began it became a symbol of virtuoso technique, inspiring generations of composers to use it as the basis of their own fiendishly difficult variations. Shortly before the world première performance, Rachmaninoff – a sufferer of performance anxiety[8] – confessed trepidation over his ability to play it. The ballet was a success, which pleased Rachmaninoff, and he wrote his Symphonic Dances in 1940 with Fokine in mind. Rachmaninoff finally found some stability when he was able to build a home for his family on the shores of Lake Lucerne in the 1930s. In his Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Rachmaninoff composed a concertante work for solo piano and orchestra consisting of 24 variations on the theme. 24 for solo violin as the inspiration for an ingenious theme and variations for piano and orchestra. “The whole middle from the 11th variation to the 18th—these are the love episodes.”. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. The Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Op. 43. The two themes are studied from a historical and musical perspective, and their contribution to the work's dramatic and musical design is analyzed. The Dies Irae was a medieval chant from the traditional Catholic mass for the dead that described the “day of wrath,” the last judgment at the end of the world. This dissertation on Rachmaninoff’s Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini, Op.43 is divided into four parts: 1) historical background and the state of the sources, 2) analysis, 3) semantic issues related to analysis (discourse), and 4) performance and analysis. Sergei Rachmaninov: Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini (Variation 18) Context. Rachmaninoff wrote the work at his summer home, the Villa Senar in Switzerland, according to the score, from 3 July to 18 August 1934. The ensuing variations become increasingly demonic, with one featuring the strings playing col legno (with the wood of the bow), an especially creepy effect. Paganini had revolutionized violin playing; many of his compositions were so difficult that initially only he could play them. It was a melody that particularly haunted Rachmaninoff, who used it in several of his compositions (perhaps most notably in his Böcklin-inspired tone poem, The Isle of the Dead). Rachmaninoff himself recognized the appeal of this variation, saying "This one, is for my agent. The Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Op. Piano Sergei Rachmaninoff Rhapsody On A Theme Of Paganini. 43, and Rochberg's Caprice Variations. orable theme, and listeners will have only oc - casional trouble spotting it as Rachmaninoff pokes and massages it through the 24 varia - tions that make up this piece (not counting a short introduction and, at the other end, a short coda). The Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Op. Orchestral Accompaniment of Rachmaninoff Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Your email address will not be published. 43 – Van Cliburn in Moscow", "Piano Concerto No.2; Rhapsody on a theme of Paganini / Yuja Wang, Abbado, Mahler Chamber Orchestra de RACHMANINOV, SERGEI, CD chez melomaan – Ref:116514833", "Rachmaninov Variations / Daniil Trifonov, Yannick Nézet-Séguin, Philadelphia Orchestra", Rachmaninoff's Works for Piano and Orchestra, International Music Score Library Project, Music written in all major and/or minor keys, List of compositions by Sergei Rachmaninoff, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rhapsody_on_a_Theme_of_Paganini&oldid=992999086, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles with International Music Score Library Project links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Variation 7: Meno mosso, a tempo moderato, Variation 15: Più vivo scherzando (F major), Variation 22: Marziale. [11] Paganini was premiered in 1939 by The Royal Ballet at the Royal Opera House in Covent Garden, London. One should perhaps take Rachmaninoff’s narrative with a grain of salt, however; the sphinxlike composer could be so private regarding his inner thoughts that sometimes what he publicly said about a piece was merely a cryptic clue to the true source of inspiration. His use of Paganini's Twenty-Fourth Caprice as inspiration is telling because both Liszt and Schumann had made arrangements of Paganini caprices for the purpose of piano studies. In any case, the legend likely sold more tickets. It is impossible to determine how much of this scenario was in Rachmaninoff’s mind as he wrote the piece and how much he invented after the fact, but for a composer who was notoriously reticent about his sources of inspiration, it is a fascinating document nevertheless. 43. Since this work was first published after 1924 with the prescribed copyright notice, it is unlikely that this work is public domain in the USA. [12], The Rhapsody has also been used for ballets by Lavrovsky (Bolshoi Ballet, Moscow, 1960), Frederick Ashton (Royal Ballet, London, 1980),[13] and Ivo van Zwieten. In 1939, Michel Fokine wrote to Rachmaninoff from Auckland, New Zealand, where he was touring, seeking the composer's approval to use Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini for his ballet Paganini, which he had almost finished choreographing. Then the music slows, and the seventh variation presents us with a new melody: the Dies Irae. Paganini himself claimed that his talent came from God, but his gaunt appearance, unusual name (Paganini means “little pagan” in Italian) and infamous womanizing did not help his case in the eyes of the public. 35 Book I; Rachmaninoff's Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Op. 43. the finale of Beethoven’s Symphony No. 3, Eroica (his “Heroic” Symphony), a theme and variations that begins in much the same way. 43 – Rachmaninov: Piano Concertos nos. In it, Rachmaninoff explained how the Rhapsody could tell the story of Paganini, his deal with the devil and his doomed love for a woman. 24 for solo violin . Get this from a library! Had he lived to hear it, the nineteenth-century Italian composer Niccolò Paganini would surely have been flattered to discover that Sergei Rachmaninov, of all people, had chosen his Caprice No. This led to Rachmaninoff nicknaming the twenty-fourth the "Crème de Menthe Variation". This caprice is a set of variations on that theme. This famous variation is in D♭-major. Rachmaninov (1873-1943) - Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini Rachmaninov admitted he was much influenced by both Rimsky-Korsakov and Tchaikovsky. Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff was born in Semyonovo, Russia, on April 1, 1873, and died in Beverly Hills, California, on March 28, 1943. In his ballet scenario, Rachmaninoff tells us “All variations on the Dies Irae would be for the evil spirit…The first appearance of the evil spirit is in the 7th variation, where at #19 there can be a dialogue with Paganini during his theme as it merges with the Dies Irae.” Here the music slows, and we hear the piano play a simple, chordal version of the dies irae, accompanied by bassoons and pizzicato cellos. The piano next gravely intones the Dies Irae,[5] the "day of wrath" plainchant from the medieval Mass of the Dead, while the orchestra accompanies with a slower version of the opening motif of the Paganini theme. Alive Inside: A Story of Music and Memory, "International Music Score Library Project – Rachmaninoff:Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Op.43", "Rachmaninov – Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini notes", "A Guide to Rachmaninoff's Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini", https://imslp.org/wiki/Rhapsody_on_a_Theme_of_Paganini,_Op.43_(Rachmaninoff,_Sergei), https://www.roh.org.uk/news/rachmaninoffs-dark-side-can-great-artistry-exist-without-the-agony-of-perfectionism, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c33q87s03h4, "DANCE - Is There a Ballet In Rachmaninoff's Symphonic Dances? 43, composition for solo piano and orchestra by Sergey Rachmaninoff, premiered in 1934 in Baltimore, Maryland, with Rachmaninoff playing the solo part. Rachmaninoff wrote the Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini between 3 July and 18 August 1934. Used by prizewinners of international music competitions. Don’t miss these Paganini-inspired works November 17, 18 & 19 at Jones Hall! This site uses cookies. Links and search tools for all of the collections and resources available from UNT. How I wish I could see you, to tell you more fully about all this—if my ideas and subject seem interesting and of value to you.” Contrary to Rachmaninoff’s fears, Fokine was intrigued, and ultimately did turn the Rhapsody into a ballet which met with great success at its 1939 London premiere, although the scenario diverged somewhat from what Rachmaninoff proposed. At this point, Rachmaninoff tells us, “Paganini himself makes his first appearance…” The following variations offer the piano soloists many opportunities for virtuoso display, reflecting Paganini’s own legendary skill. The last chapter presents a discussion of two recordings of the Rhapsody by Rachmaninoff and Moiseiwitsch made in 1934 and 1938 respectively. Emerging as a solo for piano alone after a dark and mysterious variation, this love theme is in fact closely derived from an inversion of Paganini’s original melody. It is based on an inversion of the melody of Paganini's theme. While these sources mention comparisons between two or more selected pieces, the following dissertations explore analytic and/or pedagogical aspects of a specific composition: Rachmaninoff’s Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Op.43, and provides detailed analyses of these two compositions. Even without Rachmaninoff’s notes, the expressive intent of this gorgeous melody has always been clear. Everyone naturally assumed the piece was a musical response to the poem, but years later in a private letter he revealed that the quotation was in fact a reference to a short story by Chekov that used the same quotation as an epigraph, and it was the Chekov story, not the poem, that the piece depicted. This dissertation on Rachmaninoff's Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini, Op.43 is divided into four parts: 1) historical background and the state of the sources, 2) analysis, 3) semantic issues related to analysis (discourse), and 4) performance and analysis. Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, Op.43 (. 1 & 2; Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini", "Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini (Introduction and 24 Variations), for piano & orchestra in A minor, Op. For each piece:

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